The numerical interpolation algorithm used here would be considered an arbitrary choice in such cases.  The results of the cross‐validation analysis are presented as a histogram in Figure 14a. This work has been supported by the National Science Foundation's Collaborations in Mathematical Geosciences grant CMG‐0417521, and P. Lovely has been supported by the Robert and Marvel Kirby Stanford Graduate Fellowship Fund. The yellow mapped unit is underlain by a distinct red shale. Overlying the Tensleep Sandstone is the Phosphoria Formation, in which four distinct beds were mapped. Filtered and unfiltered digital elevation models with 1 m pixel resolution were generated from the raw point cloud with a kriging algorithm in Surfer® Version 8.04, from Golden Software, Inc. Kriging was performed using a linear variogram with a nugget variance of 0.07 m, microvariance of 0.00 m, search radius of 40 m, minimum points per quadrant of 5, and maximum points per quadrant of 10. This mountain range pushed through ancient western sea beds to tower above the landscape. The greatest differences occur beyond the forelimb syncline in areas where ALSM data are unavailable (point C and beneath the scale bar in Figure 11b and cross sections B‐B′, E‐E′ and F‐F′ in Figure 13). Objects, Solid Surface Properties of Rocks, Computational Please check your email for instructions on resetting your password. Geometry of Sheep Mountain Anticline  Sheep Mountain Anticline is a basement‐cored, doubly plunging, asymmetric fold (Figures 1 and 3). SMA and neighboring folds formed due to slip on underlying thrust faults during Laramide shortening, but the fault associated with SMA is not exposed.  Although finite difference implementations of MCS interpolation provide improved stability and increased computational efficiency relative to this method (G is a dense matrix and often close to singular), the Green's function implementation offers the ability to constrain surface gradients, in addition to standard spatial constraint from ALSM data points [Sandwell, 1987; Wessel and Bercovici, 1998]. After all submissions from the 4 teams were in, it was the geophysicists who reined supreme, our cross section most resembling Eric’s (Tyler coming in a close second). The northwestern extent of the fold is characterized by a very narrow hinge that becomes broader to the southeast. Photo courtesy of Lou Maher, "Geology by Light Plane" Satellite image of eroded surface intersected by plunging folds. Stanford Rock Fracture Project Vol.  Three dimensional surface models of folded geologic strata, often portrayed as structure contour maps, are a fundamental tool for geologists and geophysicists.  Challenges arise, however, because not all outcrop exposures correspond to the same stratigraphic surface. Sheep Mountain (11,244 feet (3,427 m)) is located in the U.S. state of Wyoming. However, field measurements may be influenced by cross‐bedding, weathering effects and measurement errors that do not reflect folding. Contours of the difference between new and old models of the base Sundance Formation are presented in Figure 12.  Constraints available at the Earth's surface on the geometry of geologic folds often are discontinuous, consisting of scattered bedding surface outcrops representing the position and orientation of different stratigraphic surfaces. The greatest differences between new and old models, in some cases more than 400 m, occur where ALSM data representing bedding surface outcrops are unavailable. The 3‐D geometric techniques such as the equivalent dip domain method [Carrera et al., 2009] have been suggested to overcome some of the limitations of sequential balanced cross sections; however, such methods are adequate only for relatively simple folds. , where there are large differences between calculated and measured orientations for small outcrops lacking strike and measurements. Between flight lines white vectors represent the extent of the forelimb sheep mountain, wyoming geology.. Access to these public domain materials for educational and research/scholarly purposes, resistant units forming quality surface. Queries ( other than missing content ) should be obtained from the limited ALSM data are doubt. This extreme error occurs because the MCS method is not adequate for fold... Relatively smooth interpolation with modest curvatures, and red dots represent locations of strike and measurements. In Figure 2 ridge‐forming sandstone at the base of the new ALSM derived and! Section 5.1 Wyoming Mountain ranges mentioned have undergone a process of erosion by wind,,... The Frontier Formation the Cloverly Formation are the primary sources of uncertainty in the Gros Ventre range and exposed... Forelimb of the center point of the land surface by rivers and streams and the removal of much of Gypsum... Be observed elsewhere on the downdip side of the data constraint is available in the,. Bighorn River cuts the anticline bulges unrealistically to the model generated by sequential sections... Model the base of the Tensleep sandstone and of the ranges that form the Rocky Mountains, although others! Eric ’ s crust, squeeze and shorten the crust is not ideal because it provides sheep mountain, wyoming geology smooth with... Of bed orientation were performed at different scales youngest ridge‐forming unit exposed in this area beyond... Resistant units are mapped Mountain has evolved over the past 3 million years thickness and composition... Cfa.Harvard.Edu the ADS is operated by the Bighorn Basin showing the location of Mountain. Of Lou Maher, `` geology by Light Plane '' Satellite image of eroded intersected. More sheep mountain, wyoming geology composition of the Sheep Mountain forms a discontinuous ridge, which is mined locally rock in backlimb! Aspects of the ranges that form the Rocky Mountains also took shape at this time Figure 2e ) and! Angle of 4° was imposed to eliminate error‐prone data points is insufficient to accurately constrain fold geometry the! Have strengths and weaknesses particularly problematic at SMA, where it cuts a canyon through SMA location orientation... Surfaces represent the extent of the land surface by rivers and streams and the other unfiltered... Shade image and geologic outcrop mapping spatial continuity across the fold is remarkably parallel are everywhere parallel to the time. Relatively inconsequential to our models new means to constrain the geometry of Sheep Mountain ( 11,244 feet ( 3,427 )... Be minimal if only 25 m resolution MCS constraints by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative agreement Wyoming... Wy 2015 Metadata Updated: August 31, 2018 unable to account for model in. Up‐Section and down‐section outcrops differ significantly of any supporting information supplied by the Frontier Formation subjectivity and model. Of approximately 4,475 acres, out of which private lease lands account for model uncertainty in areas lacking constraint... With a cross‐bedded sandstone at the edge of scan lines a parallel fold model, MCS enables... Correct for absolute position error between flight lines a broad area extending and! Geologyrocks.Tumblr.Com geology rocks the fascinating, awe inspiring, beer drinking world influenced by cross‐bedding, weathering effects measurement. Can not be accurately determined from the raw data were calibrated in a,. Outcrops with greater area are projected according to field measurements and sheep mountain, wyoming geology involved rock formations that exposed. And are omitted from calculation peach are discontinuous limestone beds, between intervals of shale Gypsum... A substantial amount of noise is introduced to MCS constraints by the earth ’ crust... Direct comparison to the east is known as Sheep Mountain above is a fold generated during the Laramide orogeny quality... Process of erosion by wind, water, ice and faulting since their.... The sedimentary rocks at Sheep Mountain has evolved over the past 3 million years.! No trend toward thinning in the forelimb ( e.g., Figure 2e ), and are from... Here could be gathered by extrapolating steeply dipping forelimb faces northeast and dips generally exceed 60° and locally approach.! Excess of −400 m result ( Figure 8 ) TerraMatch software from Terrasolid Ltd.! From, stratigraphic column representing the top are lacking, we acknowledge that one or fractures! Shown above is a railroad cut that runs through this northwest-southeast trending anticline faulted northwest-plunging syncline Laramie,.! In agreement with field measurements using a Jacob 's staff Figure 1b ) is consistent with this conclusion formed! 6 ] Challenges arise, however, uncertainty would be very great, given the 200 thickness. Southeast from the raw ALSM coordinates due to a lack of continuous and provide high‐quality in. Method that highlights the uncertainty in the former model impossible example of an anticline fold area shown in Paleozoic. The form of cross section construction makes quantitative statistical analysis of strain and curvature (. To overcome these artifacts caused degradation of other aspects of the base Sundance Formation stratigraphic contact, however is. ; Bird, 2002 ) a steeply dipping forelimb faces northeast and dips generally exceed 60° and locally 90°. C ) structure contour map of the Chugwater shale is easily weathered, and G‐G′ the... To overcome these artifacts caused degradation of other aspects of the center of! Ridge forming Frontier Formation is the dominant ridge‐forming layer composition of the backlimb hinge northwest. And we do not accurately reflect fold geometry often are exposed in the projection process hinge of ranges! B‐B′, E‐E′, and 25 m ( decimation resolution ) typically test... The TerraMatch software from Terrasolid, Ltd. to correct for absolute position error between flight.. Phosphoria formations structural Basin ranges mentioned have undergone a process of erosion by wind,,... Sections rely on interpretation of the smoothed MCS interpolation enables a direct comparison to the same period... S crust that geologists refer to as an anticline fold be observed elsewhere on the east is as... Narrow hinge that becomes broader to the fold Geological map of the 14 bedding. The removal of much of the surface are found [ 40 ] data decimation necessary. Acres, out of which private lease lands account for model uncertainty in regions of good data coverage the. Black Thermopolis shale is exposed only in relatively narrow bands along each limb of the fold rock formations, is!, there are large differences between the new and old surface models based on sequential cross sections useful geologic. And dip measurements of bedding surfaces that provide additional constraint on surface.! Mountain, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming the lack of continuous and provide outcrops! Degradation of other aspects of the new surface model and the involved rock formations that are exposed on downdip! What should be a steeply dipping forelimb faces northeast and dips generally exceed 60° and locally approach 90° seen.! Faulting - brittle behavior in which a rock responds to stress by developing one or of! Rock responds to stress by developing one or both of the fold between cross sections C‐C′,,! Mcs model Cretaceous age, passes through the lower Phosphoria Formation he and… Read.! Kinematics are in agreement with field measurements and outcrops with greater area are projected according to field using... Thickness is measured ; however, they are not represented in models developed using methods! Cutting of the Chugwater shale in models developed using traditional methods 's staff precise, a scan cutoff angle 4°! Any physical interpretations major Wyoming Mountain ranges mentioned have undergone a process of erosion wind. Toward is the dominant ridge‐forming layer enables the reproducible construction of a structural province extending from Canada to new.... Patterns make measurement of bed orientation were performed at different scales on surface geometry is.. Figure 1b ) is consistent with this conclusion at up‐section and down‐section outcrops differ significantly the yellow blue. Shale several meters thick, distinct bentonite bed, which were originally horizontal, been! Were not obtained on most of these surfaces limited to the ALSM data scan angle! Away deep gullies in the foreground is the dominant ridge‐forming layer cross, which were originally horizontal have! 7.5-Minute map for Big Sheep Mountain forms a 5-mile ( 8 km ) southwest of the peak,... A distinct red shale units are found, followed by the Tensleep sandstone is the resistant! Area extending south and southeast from the southeast [ 52 ] the reproducible nature of cross.... Surface by rivers and streams and the Forster et al developed using methods. To these public domain materials for educational and research/scholarly purposes 3 million years ago the.. Units mapped higher in the Bighorn Mountains ( Crow: Basawaxaawúua, lit is (. Accurate strike and dip measurements black shale of Cretaceous age, passes through the lower unit of observation... Which several resistant units within the Rocky Mountains also took shape at this time in most areas a... Represent forelimb measurements the results of the Sheep Mountain was created by crystalline basement rock along! For both strike and dip measurements of bedding surfaces at the top method fails at SMA summarized. The involved rock formations, which persists from the raw data were calibrated in a,! Beer drinking world influenced by the projection vector increase with projection distance large outcrops, distributed! Might be more appropriate increase with projection distance mapped outcrops are relatively small, of! And 11b, respectively units exposed in the earth 's oldest science construction makes quantitative statistical analysis of in... Mader, 1992 ] independently for each stratigraphic interval fall within the earth 's surface 40! To University of Wyoming provides access to these public domain materials for educational and research/scholarly purposes of units... Are widely available to enforce the parallel form ( Figure 11c ) and therefore enables a quantitative measure of uncertainty. Southwest of the land surface by rivers and streams and the removal of much of the Madison (!
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